In developing societies, population policies and family planning programs are at crossroads, where policies continue to be driven by demographic goals, sometimes even neglecting women's basic sexual and reproductive health needs. It is important to make comprehensive reproductive health services available, affordable, and acceptable to women in developing societies. Realizing women's rights and achieving development goals depends on strengthening commitments to women and gender equality. The delivery of public services is the most direct measure of governmental accountability to women. The linkages between population policies, gender equality, and provision of reproductive health services are so complex and interrelated. This collection of research papers deals with issues of population, gender, and reproductive health from seven Asian countries: India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, Iran, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It brings together a rare combination of social scientists - demographers, health specialists, women activists, policy makers, and NGOs - to share their experiences and concerns on these wide ranging issues.